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(by Shota Dzidziguri)

Cover, BASQUES AND GEORGIANS, Scientific Monograph, 1978.


BASQUES AND GEORGIANS, Front Page, by Shota Dzidziguri, 1978
Publishing House Sabtchota Saqartvelo,
Tbilisi, 1978.



Historically there were two Iberias on Earth: one – on the East, another – on the West.

Graeco-Roman authors, scientists, political figures considered Eastern Georgia to be Iberia and mentioned population of Georgia as Eastern Iberians, Eastern Tribe of Iberians, Iberians of Asia.

Same authors were aware of existence of Iberia on the Pyrenean Peninsula in Europe (Western Iberia, European Iberians – later on Pyrenean Iberians being mentioned as Spanish Iberians). In the Medieval Georgia (VIII-XI centuries) European Iberians were mentioned with the following terms: Georgians of the West, Celt-Georgians of the West, Georgians of Spania or Shpania

spani is the Georgian for armed forces, the plural for spa.
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Not having stood historical squalls, ancient West Iberians disappeared in history. Those available fragments and indicators of their language and ethnics are insufficient and void of integrity. The modern day Basques are supposed to be a distant flicker of the old Iberian world. According to Friedrich Engels, The Basques are the last representatives of the old Iberian community.

…Iberian (that is, Basque)…, History of Ireland. Frederick Engels 1870.
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The Basques are brave fighters. Their centuries-old history is full of fight for independence and freedom. In historical past the all-consuming Roman expansion destroyed Iberia on Pyrenean Peninsula, the so called founder of Iberian civilization. The Basques are the only people who miraculously survived the total Romanization and retained their language and national individuality with swords and fire. The barbarians of the modern age -- fascists -- tried again to subdue and destroy the Basque Country irreconcilable with their regime, hoping to put an end to the small nation bleeding to death.

The proud and stormy Basque is unshakeable and permeated with the hope for better future.

The enigmatic history of the Basques attracts noninterruptible interest among Soviet and international scientists.

Bascology is a world scale phenomenon -- V. Shishmariov, academician. (Владимир Фёдорович Шишмарёв, 1857-1957, академик.)

For more than 20 centuries across the history of humanity hovers the idea of resemblance of West Iberians and East Iberians (Georgians).

Such a hypothesis, the so called Basque-Caucasian, backed with so long-lasting research is rather rare in history of science (Euscaro-Caucasique).

What is the background for this cultural-historical and linguistic theory, worked out and developed from ancient times onwards all the way through the centuries?

Everyone interested in longstanding relations between the Basques and the Georgians (in common, people of Iberian Caucasian origin) gets agitated by this question.


East Iberia

Historically, the territory of Georgian states was occupied by several ancestral tribes. As usual, the tribes were on different level of social and economic development. Hegemony of one tribe over the others often resulted in the leading political positions in the united countries, where the tribe leadership meant the country leadership. A name of the state had also been determined by the name of the dominant tribe. Initially West Georgia was namded Egrisi, then Kolkheti after corresponding tribes of Egri an Kolkhi. With political and econimical rise of the Lazi tribes, West Georgia received a new name -- Lazika. And so on. The same history was in the East Georgia, where it was calles Meskheti (the Meskhi tribe), Iberia (the Iberi tribe), and Kartli, (the Kartli tribe -- Source: Ekvtime TakaishviliWhen Iberia changed it's name to Kartli, Mnatobi magazine, #8, 1948.)

Colchis, Iberia, and Albania
Colchis, Iberia, and Albania. /

In his poems, Hómeros mentions about the tribes inhabiting Georgian territories. For example, he writes about the Kartvelian tribes of Halizons and Halibs of Asia Minor which took part in the Trojan War. Hómeros is familiar with the adventure of Argonauts: Kirke the Princess of Colchis, the sister of Aeëtes, King of Colchis, shared her palace with the Odysseuses fellows and played a certain role in Odysseuses adventure.

This is how Hómeros mentions Halizons in Iliade :

Odius and Epistrophus were captains over the Halizoni from distant Alybe, where there are mines of silver.

Hómeros, Iliad, text in Greek. /


Hómeros, Iliad. /

To be continued...

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